Optimization of Preservative System in Ophthalmic Suspension with Dexamethasone and Polymyxin B
Nádia Bou-Chacra, Telma Mary Kaneko, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo University, São Paulo (Brasil)
Corresponding author: Nádia Bou-Chacra, Ph. D., Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo University, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brasil), Fax +55 11 3815 4418, e-mail: email@example.com
A simplex−lattice statistical project was employed to study an optimization method for a preservative system in an ophthalmic suspension of dexametasone and polymyxin B. The assay matrix generated 17 formulas which were differentiated by the preservatives and EDTA (disodium ethylene diamine-tetraacetate), being the independent variable: X1 = chlorhexidine digluconate (0.010 % w/v); X2 = phenylethanol (0.500 % w/v); X3 = EDTA (0.100 % w/v). The dependent variable was the Dvalue obtained from the microbial challenge of the formulas and calculated when the microbial killing process was modeled by an exponential function. The analysis of the dependent variable, performed using the software Design Expert/W, originated cubic equations with terms derived from stepwise adjustment method for the challenging microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Besides the mathematical expressions, the response surfaces and the contour graphics were obtained for each assay. The contour graphs obtained were overlaid in order to permit the identification of a region containing the most adequate formulas (graphic strategy), having as representatives: X1 = 0.10 ( 0.001 % w/v); X2 = 0.80 (0.400 % w/v); X3 = 0.10 (0.010 % w/v). Additionally, in order to minimize responses (Dvalue), a numerical strategy corresponding to the use of the desirability function was used, which resulted in the following independent variables combinations: X1 = 0.25 ( 0.0025 % w/v); X2 = 0.75 (0.375 % w/v); X3 = 0. These formulas, derived from the two strategies (graphic and numerical), were submitted to microbial challenge, and the experimental Dvalue obtained was compared to the theoretical Dvalue calculated from the cubic equation. Both Dvalues were similar to all the assays except that related to Staphylococcus aureus. This microorganism, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, presented intense susceptibility to the formulas independently from the preservative and EDTA concentrations. Both formulas derived from graphic and numerical strategies attained the recommended criteria adopted by the official method. It was concluded that the model proposed allowed the optimization of the formulas in their preservation aspect.
Key words Dexametasone • Ophthalmic suspension, optimization • Polymyxin B • Preservatives, optimization
pharmind 2008, Nr. 5, Seite 670